Entrepreneurship among Pakistani Women in the United Kingdom: Exploring Opportunities and Constraints

Khan, Adila (2020) Entrepreneurship among Pakistani Women in the United Kingdom: Exploring Opportunities and Constraints. PhD thesis, University of Gloucestershire. doi:10.46289/BUSE7469

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The multi-dimensional research field of entrepreneurship has been studied extensively. However, the work on female and ethnic female entrepreneurs, particularly Pakistani Female Entrepreneurs (PFEs) in the UK, is underrepresented. The limited research that has been carried out previously has broadly covered the South Asian group, however, this amalgamation is not at all homogenous. Two of the reasons for this limited research on PFEs are cultural and language barriers. This study was carried out in the context of institutional theory and investigated the impact of normative (cultural), regulative institutions and temporal dimensions on the entrepreneurial process. The research design, and my own status as an insider, allowed the breakdown of potential research barriers. I followed a qualitative research approach that included 15 un-structured interviews. Participants were selected from four cities (London, Birmingham, Bradford and Cardiff), creating a richer data set for analysis. Results showed that normative institutions play a much greater role than regulative ones. The most salient factor within the normative institutions is the patriarchal values of Pakistani society. These values have both positive (in terms of support) and negative (creating gender boundaries) influence. The main gender barrier that PFEs constantly negotiate is that freedom is given, and time is allowed to them to develop their businesses. However, the intensity with which these factors impact vary with time and in relation to other life events. The particular value of this study is in its theoretical contribution, through the application of institutional theory, in the field of ethnic entrepreneurship, with a particular focus on PFEs. This study also provides an awareness of difficulties and constant struggle that PFEs face in their entrepreneurial journey. However, the knowledge gained might be generalised to all working women who are career oriented in this cultural group. This knowledge will also contribute to creating improved social, cultural and economic policies by relevant bodies to empower these previously underrepresented women.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Thesis Advisors:
Thesis AdvisorEmailURL
Bown, Robinrbown@glos.ac.ukhttps://www.glos.ac.uk/staff/profile/robin-bown/
Ward, Philippapward@glos.ac.ukhttps://www.glos.ac.uk/staff/profile/philippa-ward/
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pakistani Female Entrepreneurs (PFEs); Women; Entrepreneurship; United Kingdom
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD2340.8 Small and Medium-sized businesses, artisans, handcrafts, trades
Divisions: Schools and Research Institutes > School of Business, Computing and Social Sciences
Depositing User: Susan Turner
Date Deposited: 02 Jul 2021 08:49
Last Modified: 01 Aug 2023 12:40
URI: https://eprints.glos.ac.uk/id/eprint/9919

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