Markerless 2D kinematic analysis of underwater running: A deep learning approach

Cronin, Neil ORCID: 0000-0002-5332-1188 (2019) Markerless 2D kinematic analysis of underwater running: A deep learning approach. Journal of Biomechanics, 87. pp. 75-82. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.02.021

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Kinematic analysis is often performed with a camera system combined with reflective markers placed over bony landmarks. This method is restrictive (and often expensive), and limits the ability to perform analyses outside of the lab. In the present study, we used a markerless deep learning-based method to perform 2D kinematic analysis of deep water running, a task that poses several challenges to image processing methods. A single GoPro camera recorded sagittal plane lower limb motion. A deep neural network was trained using data from 17 individuals, and then used to predict the locations of markers that approximated joint centres. We found that 300–400 labelled images were sufficient to train the network to be able to position joint markers with an accuracy similar to that of a human labeler (mean difference < 3 pixels, around 1 cm). This level of accuracy is sufficient for many 2D applications, such as sports biomechanics, coaching/training, and rehabilitation. The method was sensitive enough to differentiate between closely-spaced running cadences (45–85 strides per minute in increments of 5). We also found high test–retest reliability of mean stride data, with between-session correlation coefficients of 0.90–0.97. Our approach represents a low-cost, adaptable solution for kinematic analysis, and could easily be modified for use in other movements and settings. Using additional cameras, this approach could also be used to perform 3D analyses. The method presented here may have broad applications in different fields, for example by enabling markerless motion analysis to be performed during rehabilitation, training or even competition environments.

Item Type: Article
Article Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Deep water running; Kinematics; Deep learning; Artificial intelligence; Motion analysis
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV557 Sports
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QP Physiology > QP301.H75 Physiology. Sport
Divisions: Schools and Research Institutes > School of Education and Science
Research Priority Areas: Health, Life Sciences, Sport and Wellbeing
Depositing User: Rhiannon Goodland
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2020 10:31
Last Modified: 31 Aug 2023 09:08

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