Risk Factors Associated with Progression to Referable Retinopathy: A Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Cohort Study in the Republic of Ireland

Smith, J.J., Wright, D.M., Scanlon, Peter H. ORCID: 0000-0001-8513-710X and Lois, N. (2020) Risk Factors Associated with Progression to Referable Retinopathy: A Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Cohort Study in the Republic of Ireland. Diabetic Medicine, 37 (6). pp. 1000-1007. doi:10.1111/dme.14278

Text (Peer Reviewed Version)
8189-Scanlon- (2020)-Risk-Factors-Associated-with-Progression-to-Referable-Retinopathy- -A-Type-2-Diabetes-Mellitus-Cohort-Study-in-the-Republic-of-Ireland.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License All Rights Reserved.

Download (375kB) | Preview


AIM: To determine factors associated with progression to referable diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a dynamic cohort of 2770 people with type 2 diabetes, recruited between April 2005 and July 2013. Systemic factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, lipid levels, BMI) and baseline diabetic retinopathy grading results were evaluated at 4-monthly and yearly intervals, respectively. Associations between risk factors (most recently recorded value, and rate of change in value between pairs of consecutive systemic evaluations) and development of referable diabetic retinopathy were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: There was a fourfold increased risk of progression to referral when retinopathy was present at baseline vs no retinopathy at baseline (hazard ratio 4.02, 95% CI 2.80-5.78; P<0.001). Higher current values of HbA1c (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34; P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (hazard ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.45; P<0.001) and triglycerides (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18; P=0.004) were associated with increased risk of referral. Higher current BMI (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95; P=0.007) and diastolic blood pressure (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97; P=0.006) were associated with reduced risk of referral. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of retinopathy at baseline was strongly associated with increased risk of referral. Modest associations between systemic factors and risk of progression to referable retinopathy were detected.

Item Type: Article
Article Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Diabetes; Retinopathy; Type 2 Diabetes; Blindness;
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA645.A-Z Individual diseases or groups of diseases, A-Z > RA645.D54 Diabetes
R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Research Priority Areas: Health, Life Sciences, Sport and Wellbeing
Depositing User: Kate Greenaway
Date Deposited: 28 Feb 2020 13:02
Last Modified: 03 Feb 2022 17:30
URI: https://eprints.glos.ac.uk/id/eprint/8189

University Staff: Request a correction | Repository Editors: Update this record

University Of Gloucestershire

Bookmark and Share

Find Us On Social Media:

Social Media Icons Facebook Twitter Google+ YouTube Pinterest Linkedin

Other University Web Sites

University of Gloucestershire, The Park, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL50 2RH. Telephone +44 (0)844 8010001.