Do Challenge and Threat States Predict Performance, Attention and Nonverbal Behaviour during the Performance of a Pressurised Soccer Penalty Task?

Brimmell, Jack (2018) Do Challenge and Threat States Predict Performance, Attention and Nonverbal Behaviour during the Performance of a Pressurised Soccer Penalty Task? Masters thesis, University of Gloucestershire.

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Athletes who display a challenge state thrive under pressure, while athletes who display a threat state struggle. The present thesis had two main aims. First, it tested the predictions of the integrated framework of stress, attention, and visuomotor performance to better understand how challenge and threat states effect performance. Second, it examined the influence of challenge and threat states on nonverbal behaviour (NVB) to provide a new method of identifying athletes who are experiencing challenge and threat states. Forty-two participants completed a pressurised soccer penalty task. Before the task, challenge and threat states were measured via demand resource evaluations and cardiovascular reactivity. During the task, a mobile eye tracker and digital video camera were used to record attentional control and NVB, respectively. After the task, performance (i.e., distance from the centre of the goal), attentional control (i.e., time to first fixation on goalkeeper, percentage viewing time on the goalkeeper and goal, and quiet eye duration), and NVB (i.e., submissive–dominant, unconfident–confident, on edge–composed, unfocused–focused, and inaccurate–accurate), were determined via video analysis. Finally, challenge and threat states were measured before a second trial on the pressurised soccer penalty task. The results revealed that challenge state was associated with more accurate performance (p = <.001), and more time spent fixating on the goalkeeper (p = .044). Also, the results suggest challenge state might be associated with the amount of time spent fixating on the goal (p = .059), and longer quiet eye durations (p = .066). In addition, a challenge state in trial one might be associated with experiencing a challenge state in trial two (p = .062). While better performance in trial one was linked to challenge evaluations in trial two (p = .009). Finally, a challenge state was associated with more dominant (p = .031), confident (p = .012), composed NVB (p = .004), and associated with increased likelihood of an accurate penalty (p = .045). Collectively, these findings partially support the integrated framework, suggesting that a challenge state might benefit sports performance by optimising goal-directed attentional control. Furthermore, the findings imply that NVB may offer a potential new method of identifying challenge and threat states among athletes in pressurised situations.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Thesis Advisors:
Thesis AdvisorEmailURL
Additional Information: Masters by Research
Uncontrolled Keywords: Challenge and threat states; Sport; Task performance
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV557 Sports > GV861 Ball games: Baseball, football, golf, etc.
Divisions: Schools and Research Institutes > School of Sport and Exercise > Applied Sport & Exercise Sciences
Depositing User: Susan Turner
Date Deposited: 22 Jul 2019 13:33
Last Modified: 01 Aug 2021 21:47

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