International Terrorism

Twyman-Ghoshal, Anamika ORCID: 0000-0003-4076-6687 (2019) International Terrorism. In: Global Crime: An Encyclopedia of Cyber Theft, Drug Smuggling, Human Trafficking, Weapons Sales, and other Illicit International Activities. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 555-559. ISBN 9781440860157

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Abstract

The word ‘terror’ originates from the Latin terrere, meaning to scare, terrify or frighten. Denoting a state of mind, it refers to a psychological rather than a physical effect. Although the use of terror as a form on coercion dates back to early civilizations, ‘terrorism’, describing a conscious practice, first emerged in France in the fourteenth century. Terrorism is a politicized term that is selectively applied to certain criminal acts. Although there are over 250 academic, governmental, and inter-governmental definitions of terrorism, there is no international consensus (Schmid 2013, 99). Domestically, nations use their position of authority to designate a sub-national group as terrorist. In the United States (US), there are over 20 definitions of domestic and international terrorism which have changed over time to reflect current concerns. The US State Department definition, for instance, has changed seven times between 1982-2004 (Schmid 2013, 44). State definitions are often accompanied by lists of sub-national groups that are designated as terrorist organization (see US Department of State foreign terrorist organization; United Kingdom Home Office proscribed terrorist groups or organization; Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs banned organizations). These lists vary between nations in the groups and the numbers of organizations included. Reviewing the many definition provides insight into some central elements of the terrorism. Beyond the underlying illegal violent acts, terrorism is a form of communication of a political motive, that through generating fear is intended at a larger audience than the immediate victims. This process of terrorism includes seizing attention (a provocation through shock, horror, fear, revulsion), conveying a message (a political objective that may be expressed in tandem to the act or through the act itself), and eliciting a response (in the form of a concessions, a violent retaliation, or a public reaction) (Townshend 2011, 8).

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology.
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology. > HV6001 Criminology
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology. > HV6001 Criminology > HV6251 Crimes and offences
J Political Science > JZ International relations
Divisions: Schools and Research Institutes > School of Business
Research Priority Areas: Society and Learning
Depositing User: Anamika Twyman Ghoshal
Date Deposited: 09 Dec 2022 10:41
Last Modified: 31 Aug 2023 08:24
URI: https://eprints.glos.ac.uk/id/eprint/11927

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