Development and Validation of the RAFFLE: A Measure of Reasons and Facilitators for Loot Box Engagement

Lloyd, Joanne, Nicklin, Laura Louise, Spicer, Stuart Gordon, Fullwood, Chris ORCID: 0000-0002-7714-6783, Uther, Maria, Hinton, Daniel P., Parke, Jonathan, Lloyd, Helen and Close, James (2021) Development and Validation of the RAFFLE: A Measure of Reasons and Facilitators for Loot Box Engagement. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10 (24). ART 5949. doi:10.3390/jcm10245949

11753 Fullwood, Lloyd, Nicklin, Spicer, Uther, Hinton, Parke, Lloyd, Close (2021) Development and validation of the RAFFLE - A measure of reasons and facilitators for loot box engagement.pdf - Published Version
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Qualitative studies have identified a diverse array of motivations for purchasing items within video games through chance-based mechanisms (i.e., “loot boxes”). Given that some individuals—particularly those at risk of disordered gaming and/or gambling—are prone to over-involvement with loot box purchasing, it is important to have a reliable, valid means of measuring the role of different motivations in driving purchasing behaviour. Building on prior qualitative research, this paper reports the development and validation of the “RAFFLE” scale, to measure the Reasons and Facilitators for Loot box Engagement. A 23-item, seven-factor scale was developed through cognitive interviews (n = 25) followed by two surveys of UK-based gamers who purchase loot boxes; analysed via exploratory (n = 503) and confirmatory (n = 1495) factor analysis, respectively. Subscales encompassed “enhancement’; “progression’; “social pressure’; “distraction/compulsion’; “altruism’; “fear of missing out’; and “resale”. The scale showed good criterion and construct validity (correlating well with measures of loot box engagement; the risky loot box index (r = 0.63) and monthly self-reported spend (r = 0.38)), and good internal validity (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84). Parallels with, and divergence from, motivations for related activities of gaming and gambling, and alignment with broader theoretical models of motivation, are discussed.

Item Type: Article
Article Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lootboxes; Video gaming; Motivations; Motives; Microtransactions; Gambling; Addiction; Scale development; Scale validation
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: Schools and Research Institutes > School of Education and Science
Research Priority Areas: Health, Life Sciences, Sport and Wellbeing
Depositing User: Chris Fullwood
Date Deposited: 09 Nov 2022 14:01
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2023 16:53

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