The effects of acute exposure to prolonged sitting, with and without interruption, on peripheral blood pressure among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Paterson, Craig ORCID: 0000-0003-3125-9712, Fryer, Simon M ORCID: 0000-0003-0376-0104, Stone, Keeron J ORCID: 0000-0001-6572-7874, Zieff, Gabriel H, Turner, Louise A ORCID: 0000-0002-0153-7075 and Stoner, Lee (2022) The effects of acute exposure to prolonged sitting, with and without interruption, on peripheral blood pressure among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 52 (6). pp. 1369-1383. doi:10.1007/s40279-021-01614-7

Text (Peer-reviewed version)
10416-Paterson-(2021)-The-effects-of-acute-exposure-to-prolonged-sitting.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Publisher's Licence.

Download (464kB) | Preview
Text (Supplemental data)
10416-Paterson-(2021)-Appendices.pdf - Supplemental Material
Available under License Publisher's Licence.

Download (301kB) | Preview


Background: Previous reviews have shown that exposure to acute prolonged sitting can have detrimental effects on several cardiovascular and cardiometabolic health markers. However, to date there has been no synthesis of peripheral blood pressure data (including systolic [SBP], diastolic [DBP], and mean arterial pressure [MAP]), an important and translatable marker of cardiovascular health. Similarly, no previous study has consolidated the effects of sitting interruptions on peripheral blood pressure. Objectives: (1) To assess the effect of exposure to acute prolonged sitting on peripheral blood pressure, and (2) to determine the efficacy of sitting interruption strategies as a means of offsetting any negative effects. Subgroup analyses by age and interruption modality were performed to explore heterogeneity. Data Sources: Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscus) were searched from inception to March 2021. Reference lists of eligible studies and relevant reviews were also screened. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria for objective (1) were: (i) peripheral blood pressure was assessed non-invasively in the upper limb pre- and post-sitting; (ii) studies were either randomised controlled, randomised crossover, or quasi-experimental pre- versus post-test trials; (iii) the sitting period was >1 hour; (iv) pre- and post-sitting measures were performed in the same posture; (v) participants were adults (>18 years), free of autonomic or neuromuscular dysfunction. Additional criteria for objective (2) were: (i) the interruption strategy was during the sitting period; (ii) there was an uninterrupted sitting control condition; (iii) the interruption strategy must have involved participants actively moving their upper or lower limbs. Appraisal and synthesis methods: 9763 articles were identified, of which 32 met inclusion criteria for objective (1). Of those articles, 22 met inclusion criteria for objective (2). Weighted mean difference (WMD), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and standardised mean difference (SMD) were calculated for all trials using inverse variance heterogeneity meta-analysis modelling. SMD was used to determine the magnitude of effect, where <0.2, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 were defined as trivial, small, moderate, and large, respectively. Results: (1) Prolonged uninterrupted sitting resulted in trivial and small significant increases in SBP (WMD=3.2 mmHg, 95% CI:0.6 to 5.8, SMD=0.14) and MAP (WMD=3.3 mmHg, 95% CI:2.2 to 4.4, SMD=0.37), respectively, and a non-significant trivial increase in DBP. Subgroup analyses indicated that the increases in SBP and MAP were more pronounced in younger age groups. (2) Interrupting bouts of prolonged sitting resulted in significantly lower SBP (WMD=-4.4 3mmHg, 95% CI:-7.4 to -1.5, SMD=0.26) and DBP (WMD=-2.4 mmHg, 95% CI:-4.5 to -0.3, SMD=0.19) compared to control conditions, particularly when using aerobic interruption strategies. Conclusions: Exposure to acute prolonged uninterrupted sitting results in significant increases in SBP and MAP, particularly in younger age groups. Regularly interrupting bouts of prolonged sitting, particularly with aerobic interruption strategies may reduce negative effects.

Item Type: Article
Article Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
Divisions: Schools and Research Institutes > School of Education and Science
Research Priority Areas: Health, Life Sciences, Sport and Wellbeing
Depositing User: Rhiannon Goodland
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2021 13:40
Last Modified: 31 Aug 2023 09:06

University Staff: Request a correction | Repository Editors: Update this record

University Of Gloucestershire

Bookmark and Share

Find Us On Social Media:

Social Media Icons Facebook Twitter Google+ YouTube Pinterest Linkedin

Other University Web Sites

University of Gloucestershire, The Park, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL50 2RH. Telephone +44 (0)844 8010001.